Tuesday, May 26, 2020
How do you measure political corruption, and what are the difficulties involved Free Essay Example, 3000 words
Political corruption is a complex and secret thing. Money and power in highly involved in it. Bribing is widely used in political corruption. Therefore a detailed analysis and tracking should be done on the flow of money in the political system. If this detailed study shows that high amount of bribing is involved in this process and the money flow of this system is not very clear that means high degree of political corruption is present in the system. The political system of a state must be trusted by its people. When a state experiences the lack of trust among the people towards its political system denotes that corruption is present somewhere in the political system of the state for which public becomes apathetic. Social peace is also associated with political corruptions. With the increase of crime in the society for legislative reasons states the level of political corruptions. High level of political corruption results in strong presence of violence in the society. The politica l parties want to establish their powers by ignoring the laws and misusing their powers. The Politics system of a state must be focused on providing peace and security to the citizens. We will write a custom essay sample on How do you measure political corruption, and what are the difficulties involved or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now The rise of various political problems and social disputes are the indicator of political corruption. The government officials, political leaders and the government institutions support the reason of these problems for their own benefits. They are not concerned about the general people. It shows that they are not performing the responsibilities of their duty and are not abiding the written and formal rules and regulations of the state. Due to the vast scale and nature it is very difficult to measure the political corruptions with perfect accuracy. Different surveys and indices are used to measure this corruption. In the modern world the best tool for measuring corruption is Corruption Perception Index (CPI). It was initiated in 1995. It was created for measuring the issues of corruptions in international politics. In 1999 CPI included 99 countries of the world. International transparency is involved in CPI. Political corruption levels are evaluated by expert opinion and assessments. Transparency International produced the index of corruption perceptions. In 2012 CPI has done different assessments and surveys in different institutions for measuring political corruptions. Survey of public opinions is also used as a measuring tool of political corruption. It provides a clear picture of the degree till which the politicians and the public officials accept bribes, grants illegal payments in different procurement process of public, misuses public funds and commit offences.
Friday, May 15, 2020
Brave New World Discussion Questions Question 1: Each novel immerses us, instantly, into a world that simultaneously is foreign and familiar. Establish the characteristics of the society that the author creates and analyze the intricacies (complexities) of the society being presented. In what ways is it like and unlike our own society? In Aldous HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s science fiction novel Brave New World, a distinct society is illustrated. The author depicts a civilization that is specifically based on several economic classes, extreme measures of social manipulation, marginalization, and technologic advancement. Huxley often emphasizes the ranked divisions of society throughout Brave New World. Alpha, the utmost superior caste, possessed those of fair skin, intelligence, and high standards. The secondary level classified as Beta is considered a less pristine version of Alpha, but still obliges technical expertise. Gamma, which follows Alpha and Beta, is occupied by those with adequate knowledge, mediocre skills, and almost insufficient abilities. Lastly, are Delta and Epsilon; the ultimate uncultured and unsophisticated. Being mass-produced, these remaining castes lack quality, character, identity, and intellect. They perform the lowest sorts of labor and are segregated from the high-ranked classes. When being compared to todayÃ¢â¬â¢s current age, Brave New World is nearly identical, yet foreign. The society in Brave New World, as previously mentioned, is a civilization that is based onShow MoreRelatedBrave New World by Aldous Huxley811 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Brave New World is based around characters who gave up the right of freedom for happiness; characters who ignored the truth so that they could live in a utopian civilization. The deceiving happiness was a constant reminder throughout the book. Almost every character in Brave New World did whatever they could to avoid facing the truth about their own situations. In this society, happiness is not compatible with the truth because the World State believes that happiness was at the expense of theRead MoreEssay on Imagine a Brave New World1255 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Imagine a Brave New WorldÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Imagine living in a world without mothers and fathers, a place in which all those around you are human clones with no personality, a vast array of people that are not seen as individuals but a social body. This society results from the absence of spirituality and family, the obsession with physical pleasure, and the misuse of technology. The society described above, becomes a reality in A Brave New World, a novel depicting how the advancement ofRead MoreHuxley V. Orwell1015 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBrave New World v. 1984 June 8, 2011 It is no question that both Huxley and Orwell were displeased with our societal norms by their predictions in Brave New World and 1984. However, the two famous novels could not have differed more in their visions of tomorrow. Huxley portrays a nation of pleasure addicted, mindless beings merely existing. Orwell illustrated such a strict regime that the pursuit of knowledge would be banned and our voices would be silenced. Imagine living in a world withoutRead MoreA Brave New World by Aldous Huxley732 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Have you ever wondered what human nature would be like if everybody looked and sounded the same? How in Brave New World they were cloning people and everybody were getting scientific things done on them. And how now in society is different from the past to now in the present. Based on what Aldous wrote in the book BNW is probably what the future is going to be like were there would be test tube babies and cloning individuals in this type of society. Because now the present is so differentRead MoreBrave New World by Aldous Huxley Essay1128 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBrave New World by Aldous Huxley Humans have transformed their social organization, time and time again. Social separation has existed since the Neolithic Revolution. Very recently, we have begun to head down a dangerous path to what we can call a Brave New World. A Ã¢â¬Å"Brave New WorldÃ¢â¬ is one in which those in charge begin to intrude on the lives of individuals to the extent that the government has so much control that it begins to create human beings artificially. This path first started withRead MoreAction Research. Research Has Shown That Technology Can1498 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages feelings, and opinions with peers and educators. They need to share what they have learned with others. Technology definitely connects people and can bring them together, but can it overcome personalities too? In whole class activities and discussions, many teachers have the same observation: the bravest and loudest students tend to dominate. This paper begins a research project that addresses that issue. It will look to technology to find a way to increase student participation and interactivityRead MoreSatire of the Utopian Future: Brave New World by Aldous Huxley1584 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWhile the knowledge of the world around man may open door to him, it leaves his mind filled with endless thoughts that weigh on him. In Aldous HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Brave New World, Huxley describes a satiric version of the utopian future where humans are genetically bred and classically conditioned to live passively and happily in their subservient culture. Throughout the novel, this idea of happiness verses knowledge and intelligence is brought before the characters of HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s society. The only way thisRead MoreCompare and Contrast Essay: Brave New World Versus 19841675 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessociety to achieve their goals. A totalitarian leader controls the behavior and actions of its people in order to become powerful. In the novels, Brave New World by Aldous Huxley and 1984 by George Orwell, two futu ristic dystopias are depicted. Both of them show totalitarian rule, where liberty has been deprived by different means of control. In Brave New World, the control of society is maintained through a peaceful way that consists in convincing people of loving their lack freedom. On the other sideRead MoreSummary Of Brave New World By Charles Dudley Warner Essay1156 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesaforementioned quote by Charles Dudley Warner appears to parallel the views on conformity Aldous Huxley created in his novel Ã¢â¬Å"Brave New WorldÃ¢â¬ . Conformity, and with this, stability, in HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s world is only possible with the excessive use of conditioning and the hyper-cloning of zygotes called Ã¢â¬Å"BokanovskyÃ¢â¬â¢s ProcessÃ¢â¬ . Conditioning is not something created in Ã¢â¬Å"Brave New WorldÃ¢â¬ . Behaviorists like Ivan Pavlov and John B. Watson performed conditioning experiments on dogs and even children (in respectiveRead MoreAct V Excerpt From The Play A Streetcar Named Desire 1404 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStanley, more of a realist, despises BlancheÃ¢â¬â¢s fabrications and does everything he can to unravel them. Blanche and StanleyÃ¢â¬â¢s somewhat antagonistic relationship is a struggle between blissful ignorance and the burden of knowledge. When Blanche gets to New Orleans, she decides that she must keep others unaware of her struggles and pretend she is on vacation so nobody would think less of her, and she would not have to face the consequences of the truth of her situation. She continuously has baths so no
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Raymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s unnamed narrator in Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ provides a first-person point of view. This perspective opens a clear window into the feelings, attitudes, and the isolation of the unnamed narrator. The narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s tone of voice reveals his feelings and personality. This contributes to the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s themes because the reader comes to understand things that the narrator never directly or deliberately reveals; as a result, the reader comes to empathize with the narrator more deeply. Isolation and loneliness are prevalent themes in Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ . Appropriately, the narrator is insular and narrow-minded. He is unhappy and resentful because he overlooks the worth and liveliness of other people and is unable to make connections with them. Consequently he is afflicted with loneliness and isolation. Ã¢â¬Å"He is numb and isolatedÃ¢â¬ , says Mark A.R. Facknitz, Ã¢â¬Å"a modern man for whom integration with the human race would be so difficult that it is futile. Consequently he hides by failing to try, anesthetizes himself with booze, and explains away the world with sarcasm.Ã¢â¬ (Facknitz 294) The narrator also appears to be emotionally distant from his wife. Neither he nor his wife are able to relate successfully to one another. Because of this, he is envious of the blind man, Robert, who seems to be the only one capable of creating and sustaining deep and personal connections with other people. As the story develops, the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s increasing ability to connect with Robert and his wife emphasizes theShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Cathedral By Raymond Carver Essay830 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMistakable Judgments An Analysis of Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ Raymond Carver wrote a long-lived short story name Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ . Where a divorced women remarried after a hard experience to a person who is struggling to accept his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s very long relationship with a blind man. Her new husband suspiciousness controls his emotions and draw his thoughts falsely. As her very old friendship was having an unfortunate event that his wife had passed away, he arranged with her a visit to their house, which concerned herRead MoreAnalysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral1696 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIntroduction: Everyone has ghosts in their closets; something they are running from, or trying to bury alive. Cathedral, written by Raymond Carver, takes place in the early 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s. Originally published in The Atlantic Monthly in 1981. Carver slightly revised the story and re-released it in 1983. At a time when the blue collar working class lived paycheck to paycheck, working hard for newfound luxuries such as color television, this short story is humorous and eye-opening for the reader. For adultsRead MoreRaymond Carver Cathedral Analysis1231 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn Raymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ , it tells the story of a man whose wife one summer, worked for a blind man. The blind man and the husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, kept in touch throughout the years by sending cassettes back and forth in the mail. The blind manÃ¢â¬â¢s wife recently died and the husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s wife invites him to say in her home, but her husband is displeased by this request. In the beginning of the story, the husband is very rude to the blind man and finds amusement by making fun of the blind manÃ¢â¬â¢s disabilityRead MoreCathedral Raymond Carver Analysis1212 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn Ã¢â¬Å"Cathedral,Ã¢â¬ CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s use of visualization and climactic change of character emphasizes the theme that looking and seeing are two very different things. When Raymond Carver had his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s blind friend, Robert, join them for a few days, he shouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve been more understanding and empathetic with RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s blindness instead of just avoiding it or brushing it off as if itÃ¢â¬â¢s not there. Carver did very well in changing his ways and learning to accept and understand Robert. Carver also did a good job ofRead MoreAnalysis Of Raymond Carver s Cathedral 1648 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Cathedral is a capitivating story based on the lives of the narrator, his wife and a blind man. Raymond Carver is the author of this story, and he does an excellent job allowing the reader to delve into the lives of these characters. Through using the thoughts of the narrator, the reader is able to grab our attention because the story is made more realistic. The views expressed by the narrator in many senses exemplify the views of many in society and therefore the reader is able to make an emotionalRead MoreAnalysis Of Raymond Carver Cathedral1260 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRaymond Carver is often known for his writing style known as minimalism, a style that often uses short phrases or sentences that convey a great amount of meaning. CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ is full of minimalism, whether it be short and repetitive dialogue or brief thoughts that go through the narrators mind. These intentionally precise sentences are full of meaning, whether it be the importance of comm unication, or the lack of, the underlying tones of death and jealously, or even the psychological connectionRead MoreAnalysis Of Cathedral By Raymond Carver1541 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesA New Perspective Everyone at one point has judged a book by its cover. In the short story, Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ , Raymond Carver creates a narrator who bases off ideas and assumptions about blind people from movies. The narrator has never interacted with a blind person before the day where his wife invites her friend, who is named Robert, to stay. The narrator and Robert have never met, but the narrator has a strong dislike towards Robert before meeting. The narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s closed-mindedness and misconceptionsRead MoreRaymond Carver Cathedral Analysis985 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages In Raymond CarverÃ¢â¬â¢s story, Ã¢â¬Å"Cathedral,Ã¢â¬ we meet the nameless protagonist who is about to meet an old friend of his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s. The friendÃ¢â¬â¢s name is Robert and he is blind. In the beginning of the story, the narrator is uncomfortable with the idea of having someone with a disability, like RobertÃ¢â¬â¢s, in his home. He makes judgments about Robert and assumes that he is going to be like the b lind people he has seen in the movies. We also learn the background information about how hife wife and Robert metRead MoreCathedral By Raymond Carver Analysis1631 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Cathedral is a short story written by American writer and poet Raymond Carver. (2017) The story was first published in The Atlantic Monthly in 1981 and appeared in The Americas Best Short Stories in 1982. (2012) In the short story cathedral, the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s blind friend is coming to visit. The narrator isnÃ¢â¬â¢t thrilled about his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s blind friend coming to visit nor is he happy that the man is blind. Later in the evening the narrator experiences a life changing realization of the true meaningRead MoreAn Analysis Of Cathedral By Raymond Carver1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Cathedral Research Paper The short story Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ , by Raymond Carver, is a thought provoking piece that focuses on the transition a man goes through to see the world with his soul. The story gives hope that people can change if given the chance to be better people. Over the course of the story, Carver uses both diction and description to explore themes in religion and morality. Ã¢â¬Å"CathedralÃ¢â¬ depicts a husband and a wife as they prepare and entertain a friend of the wife. The husband, the narrator
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Black Footed Ferret Essay, Research Paper Introduction: In the past three decennaries really few endangered species have been restored to feasible populations. The black footed Mustela nigripes ( Mustela nigripes ) was believed to be the most endangered mammal in the united provinces. It is a little mink sized carnivore of the Great fields and intermountain basins The Mustela nigripess appear to be obligatory marauders on the prairie Canis familiariss and one time occupied a scope basically indistinguishable to that of the prairie Canis familiariss. They prey on them and besides use their tunnels for shelter and nesting. The prairie Canis familiariss are considered agricultural plagues and rivals with farm animal since white colony foremost began in the American West. Large scale gnawer control plans were implemented by the province and federal authoritiess. They drastically reduced the population of prairie Canis familiariss ( and other species related to the prairie Canis familiaris ecosystem ) through caparison, gassing and poisoning. These poisoning plans were considered a major cause of the Mustela nigripes? s death. But, the chief cause was the loss of the Mustela nigripes? s quarry base and appropriate home ground. Their staying home ground was fragmented therefore go forthing the ferret population vulnerable to extinction from assorted causes including inability to happen couples, inbreeding depression, environmental events, and disease of Mustela nigripess and their quarry. The Mustela nigripess were believed to be extinct in 1974, but in 1981 a Mustela nigripes was discovered in Meeteetsee, Wyoming when a spread Canis familiaris killed an unusual animate being eating from its nutrient dish and the rancher took the carcase to a knowing animal stuffer. This was viewed as a rare opportunity to retrieve the species. In 1985, a ruinous disease struck the little ferret population, and most leftover animate beings were taken into imprisonment. Captive genteelness was initiated, and reintroduction into the natural state from the confined population began in 1991. The Mustela nigripes is merely one of more than 900 species listed under the Endangered Species act as either threatened or endangered. Over three 1000s more species wait on a list of campaigners for such position, but in the 1980s over 34 species went extinct while on the waiting list ( Cohn, 1993 ) . Is the ferret plan representative of the national attempt to retrieve species? Main organic structure: United States policy on endangered species, including the Mustela nigripes and 100s of other workss and animate beings, is codified in the 1973 Endangered Species act ( ESA, as amended, U.S. Congress 1983, Bean 1991 ) . This piece of statute law sets a national end the bar of any farther extinction and the Restoration of species presently threatened with extinction. The ESA is a extremely popular piece of legislative assembly because no 1 would recommend the violent death of an full species. But the simple end of salvaging a species cloaks a complicated procedure. The ferret instance is a good illustration of how the ESA is really outfitted, how and province functionaries and others tackle the complex work of reconstructing species, and how jobs come about in about all recovery programs. In short, the Mustela nigripes deliverance is a step of how the ESA truly works. After happening the little population in Wyoming, in 1981, one might anticipate a well led and swimmingly co-ordinated recovery attempt to hold been rapidly organized to salvage a species that had been recognized as America? s most endangered mammal. Many universities, preservation organisations, province and federal bureaus, and local people were willing to assist. Jointly they command significant resources, non merely in footings of money: national and international expertness on population genetic sciences and little population direction, experienced field research workers, tested genteelness installations, and support staffs from major menagerie. All that was needed for the Mustela nigripess to be restored fleetly, professionally, and expeditiously was a agencies to convey the endowment together in a productive well organized plan. Under the ESA, the undertaking of forming recovery attempts is the duty of the federal authorities moving through the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service. Federal functionaries had legion options open to them at the start of the ferret plan, one of which was to map like decision makers of a big infirmary, drawing together a first professional squad, back uping the necessary work with equal support, equipment and installations, and trusting on the squad? s judgement to convey about the patient? s recovery. But this theoretical account was non selected. The ferret plan was organized and operated really otherwise. Section 6 of the ESA requires that provinces be involved to the # 8220 ; maximal extent practicable. # 8221 ; Early in 1982, the federal authorities turned the chief duty for ferret Restoration over to the province of Wyoming. Almost instantly, jobs began to emerge. Through a formal declaration, the American Society of mammologists ( 1986:786 ) urged # 8220 ; the Fish and Wildlife Service, the Wyoming Fish and Game section, and other province wildlife sections, and legion and legion interested preservation groups to do broader recovery attempts # 8221 ; than those exhibited by the current plan. Miller, Reading, and Forest ( Miller et al.1996:208 ) place the FWS as the national agent responsible for keeping professional Restoration plans. # 8220 ; It is our contention, # 8221 ; they write, # 8220 ; that Region 6, of the FWS, failed to do the ferret recovery a national plan. It may hold been easiest for Region 6 to acuiesence to Wyoming? s docket in the short term, but the scheme has likely impaired the recovery in the long tally. Peoples, or bureaus, in a place to better preservation should non merely throw money at a job, but invest in clip and attending as well.Ã¢â¬ The Wyoming Game and Fish section was interested in making whatever was necessary to see that the Mustela nigripess be returned to the natural state in Wyoming foremost, whether or non Wyoming was the best topographic point to present them. There could hold been sites in other provinces which were better suited for ferret reintroduction, but the green-eyed monster of the Wyoming Game and Fish section prevents them from sing such an option. The Greater Yellowstone Coalition ( 1990 ) concluded that state-level concerns had taken precedency over national recovery issues. The Wilderness Society concluded that of the 495 species listed in 1988, merely about 16 ( 3.2 per centum ) are retrieving. Another 18 listed species ( 3.6 per centum ) may hold already been nonextant. This is a record that fails to show the basic promises of the act. The General Accounting Office ( 1992 ) added that of 16 species removed from the list, five were recovered, seven were nonextant, and four were reclassified because of misinformation. Two federal audits of the ESA execution have been conducted. Reviews of the FWS endangered species plan and found that the federal authorities did non keep centralised information needed to find how good the overall plan was runing. Required recovery programs have non been developed and approved for many species. In 16 recovery programs that were investigated in deepness, about half of the undertakings listed had non been undertaken even though the programs had been approved, on norm, more than four old ages before. Fws functionaries attributed this to shortage of financess, # 8220 ; the inspector general of the Interior section has lambasted his federal co-workers at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, bear downing that they may be directing species to extinction # 8221 ; ( Holden1990 ) . Decision: The devastation of other life signifiers because of the actions of people is a job with profound biological, ecological, economic, and ethical dimensions. We must presume that a healthy biosphere is in the common involvement of humanity. Appreciation of the cardinal importance and far-sightedness of the Endangered Species Act and other biodiversity protection policies has grown over the last two decennaries, but that has neither prevented nor appreciably slowed the extinction crisis. Around the Earth, the job of extinction is utmost and turning, with possibly tonss of species vanishing everyday. The ESA is potentially a powerful tool to break the extinction crisis, and in many ways has served as a planetary theoretical account. But despite its value both substantively and symbolically, there are jobs with it, as both the biological and political tendencies of the past old ages attest. Execution has fallen short of promise. Protecting species under the ESA is a long, complex procedure. Once species are recognized as deserving of protection and are listed, preservation plans must be designed, approved, and so implemented. Almost four 1000 species in the United States now wait to be afforded the basic protections of the ESA ; several hundred, many of them workss may already be nonextant. Beyond the listing procedure, there are countless stairss, activities and processes that make up the ESA execution. The extinction job in the U.S. and the universe is seemingly turning faster than practical policy responses can be generated to halt it. The black footed Mustela nigripes was a good illustration for demoing how there are jobs with the preservation procedure and restrictions of conventional attacks. The ferret Restoration plan was fraught with jobs, which has added to its ill fame in the public oculus and the scientific and preservation communities. If we are to better the policy-making procedure for conserving biodiversity, we must admit the job openly, candidly, and realistically. We must turn our cognition of salvaging species and take bend it into more effectual, more efficient preservation additions. In other words, we must retrace the endangered species recovery procedure. Bibliography Literature cited: American Society of Mammologists. 1986. Recovery and Restoration of the black footed Mustela nigripes. Journal of mammology 67:786. Bean, M.J.1983. The development of national wildlife jurisprudence. Prager, New York. Cohn, J.P.1993. Defenders of biodiversity. Government executive national diary, April:18-22 General accounting office. 1988. Endangered species: Management betterments could heighten recovery plans. GAO/RCED 89-5. GPO, Washington. Holden, C.1990. Ecology hero in the interior section. Science 250:620-621. Miller, B.J. , R. Reading, C. Conway, J.A. Jackson, M.A. Hutchins, N. Snyder, S. Forest, J. Frazier, and S. Derricson. 1994. Bettering endangered species plans: Avoiding organisational booby traps, tapping the resources, and adding answerability. Environmental Management 18:637-645. Reffault, W. 1991. The endangered species lists: Histories of extinction? P.77-75. Island Press, Washington.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
Table of Contents Introduction A Brief History of Apartheid Effects on Education Discussion Conclusion Bibliography Footnotes Introduction One of the bleak outcomes of European settlement in South Africa was the adoption of the apartheid. This system which was adopted by the minority white government was characterized by unequal rights and opportunities for the various races living in South Africa1.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Impact of Apartheid on Education in South Africa specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Apartheid had various far reaching social, economic and political implications for the black, white, Asian and colored peoples of South Africa. The policy of Apartheid was based on segregation of people depending on their race. An aspect of society that was significantly affected by this policy was education. This paper will aim to discuss the impact of apartheid on education in South Africa s o as to demonstrate that apartheid negatively affected the educational development of non-whites in South Africa. To reinforce this assertion, a critical look at the ways in which apartheid impact educational development for the various races shall be provided. A Brief History of Apartheid South Africa is a society in which Ã¢â¬Å"Africans, Asians and Europeans co-exist in the same territoryÃ¢â¬ as a result of a long history of interaction between these three groups. The first European settlement took place in 1652 and since then, there has been prolonged contact characterized by cooperation as well as conflicts over resources between these groups of people2. Apartheid as a political system was proposed by the National Party which took power in 1948 as a system to safeguard Ã¢â¬Å"White supremacyÃ¢â¬ . Walshe states that the original concept of Apartheid which was developed by Afrikaner intellectuals and idealists who sought to create complete territorial separation of the race s3. However, this original ideal of Apartheid was not practical to implement since the Europeans required the surplus labor that could only be provided by Africans.Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Successive Nationalist governments therefore modified the ideal so as to maintain white privilege and bolster Afrikaner power while at the same time exploiting the other races so as to maintain their high standard of living. Effects on Education The government of South Africa recognized the importance of education for the country. Even so, education was greatly influenced by the official policy of Apartheid with dire consequences being felt by the Africans and the Colored and Asian minority. So as to conform to the ideal of Ã¢â¬Å"separatenessÃ¢â¬ , Africans, Asians, Coloureds and Whites were educated in independent spheres. Separateness was emphasized from the method of finance to the type of syllabus stipulated for each group by the administration. For the white children, education was provided free of charge and was compulsory up to a certain age. On the other hand, almost all black schools required substantial fees even at the primary level which means that the economic resources available to black families had a bearing on their ability to ensure that their children received an education. Traditionally, all educational efforts are designed to increase the productivity of the student so as to benefit the society. The apartheid system deviated from this standard and Brookes described apartheid education as Ã¢â¬Å"the only education system in the world designed to restrict the productivity of its pupils in the national economy to lowly and subservient tasksÃ¢â¬ 4. The South African government endeavored to give the Ã¢â¬Å"nativesÃ¢â¬ an education that would make them manual laborers. Apartheid education rendered non-whites non-competitive in the South A frican economy as their education did not given them a chance to compete on the same grounding with whites. The high paying jobs were therefore reserved for the whites since the other races could not attain the education level required to fill this capacities. UNESCO recorded that in 1960, South Africa faced a chronic shortage of top-level manpower in science and technology since the racial discrimination in education ensured that only a small number of people received higher training5.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Impact of Apartheid on Education in South Africa specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This was because of the policy of Ã¢â¬Å"separate developmentÃ¢â¬ in the field of education which was encouraged by the government. This policy was in fact synonymous with inequality of access since non-White schools suffered from inadequate facilities. UNESCO reported that as a result of low standard of e quipment in African schools, Africans who wished to continue to higher education especially in sciences were handicapped. Treiman asserts that a central feature of apartheid in South Africa was unequal access to education by race with the white population being given preference6. In particular, black children were subjected to limited educational opportunities and their education system was of an inferior quality. For example, the training of teachers for the various races was also significantly different. The South African Government in 1949 appointed a committee which was tasked with modifying the training of teachers for the respective races7. The training was to be adjusted in respect to content and the form of syllabuses so as to conform to the government policy of preparing the non-Whites for their future occupations. Teachers in African schools also suffered from poor salaries as a result of the shortage of finances. Due to these, African schools suffered from a lack of adequ ate number of trained teachers since not many people felt motivated to train for this profession. The type of schools that could be built was also greatly affected by available finances and for this reason, non-white school facilities were poor. The ability to expand the school systems was also greatly deterred by financial constraints. Education also served as a potent tool for domination and assertion of White Supremacy to the other races in South Africa. Apartheid education was designed to benefit the Europeans by enhancing their omnipresence. Abdi asserts that the peoples of South Africa were Ã¢â¬Å"culturally dominated with colonial and apartheid educationÃ¢â¬ 8.Advertising Looking for research paper on history? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More After the 1948 ascendancy into power of the National party which championed apartheid, a separate and unequal education program was implemented. The African population was given the Bantu Education program9. This education program not only vastly inferior to the white education program but it also elevated the use of Afrikaners as the language of choice. The fact that education was a key to domination is confirmed by the statement by apartheid Prime Minister and Minister of Native Affairs, F. Verwoerd, who asserted that Ã¢â¬Å"when I have control over native education, I will reform it so natives will be taught from childhood that equality with Europeans is not for themÃ¢â¬ 10. This approach to education by the Apartheid regime was contrary to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which stated that Ã¢â¬Å"education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedomsÃ¢â¬ 11. Universal ly, education efforts are geared at preparing the individual for their future occupation. In apartheid South Africa, the Blacks and other minority groups were a source of cheap labor for the White South Africans. A major objective of Bantu Education was therefore to provide mass labor for the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s rapidly growing economy. The levels of achievements in non-white schools were therefore deliberately imposed to fit in with the different expectations in employments and for the non-whites, this meant being prepared for a future occupation as an unskilled laborer12. The primary priority in African education was to create mass literacy and to increase education at the lowest (primary) level. The government therefore encouraged lower primary school enrolments which were to concentrate on Ã¢â¬Å"the tool subjects (three RÃ¢â¬â¢s)Ã¢â¬ . There were major financial discrepancies between the expenditure made on white pupils and the average African pupil. Before the implementation of apartheid, the South African government provided grants to private schools for all the races. However, starting from 1957, the government withdrew grants to private schools for Africans which made it impossible for Africans to afford private education. As of 1990, the educational expenditure incurred by the government on behalf of the white pupil was as high as four times that of the average African pupil. The relative cost of schooling for blacks was much higher than for whites despite the fact that whites were more economically empowered and had a much higher standard of living. As a result of this, there was a higher drop out rate and lower education attainment for blacks compared to white South Africans. Treiman cites the lack cost of education as the primary reason for dropping out or not enrolling in school13. Discussion The apartheid education system was racially divided and highly discriminatory and Nelson Mandela described the system as Ã¢â¬Å"a crime against humanityÃ¢â ¬ 14. The fact that education was free for all white children until the end of secondary school while the rest of the population were forced to pay for the education of their children through direct and indirect taxation points to the discriminatory nature of apartheid. The education provided to non-whites in the Apartheid era was aimed at sustaining their subservient role in relation to the white population. Bantu education was structured in such a manner that Black South Africans could contribute as much as possible to the maintenance of the apartheid system. The education provided in the apartheid era was not what the Africans desired. According to UNESCO, Africans desired to get from education; an integration into the democratic structures and institutes of the country15. As such, they wanted an education which was equal to and not inferior to that provided to other races in the country. The Apartheid system was officially abolished in 1994 when The African National Congress l et government of national unity took power16. Since then, positive changes have been made to redress the inequalities that apartheid brought about. Even so, the negative impacts of Apartheid education system in South Africa continue to be felt today. Conclusion Education is critical to the development of the nation and the well being of individual members of the society. This paper set out to highlight the manner in which this important aspect of society was affected by apartheid in South Africa. From this paper, it is clear that the provision of education to by the white government was not aimed at empowering the Black South Africans and the other minority groups. Instead, education was used as a means to provide cheap labor for South AfricaÃ¢â¬â¢s budding industries as well as enhance white domination. Bibliography Abdi, Ali. Ã¢â¬Å"Apartheid and Education in South Africa: Select Historical Analyses.Ã¢â¬ The Western Journal of Black Studies 27, no.2 (2003): 89-97. Brookes, Ed gar. Apartheid: a Documentary Study of Modern South Africa. London: Routledge 1968. Lemon, Anthony. Ã¢â¬Å"Redressing School Inequalities in the Eastern Cape, South AfricaÃ¢â¬ . Journal of Southern African Studies 30, no.2 (2004): 269-290. Shillington, Kevin. History of Africa, Revised Edition. Boston: Palgrave Macmillan, 1995. Treiman, Donald. Ã¢â¬Å"Migration, Remittances and Educational Stratification among Blacks in Apartheid and Post-Apartheid South AfricaÃ¢â¬ . Social Forces 89, no. 14 (2011): 1119-1144. UNESCO. Apartheid: Its effects on education, science, culture and information. United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1967. Walshe, Peter. Ã¢â¬Å"Review: Aspects of Apartheid.Ã¢â¬ The Review of Politics 25, no.1 (1963): 140-142. Footnotes 1 Kevin Shillington, History of Africa, Revised Edition (Boston: Palgrave Macmillan, 1995), 23. 2 UNESCO, Apartheid: Its effects on education, science, culture and information (United Nations Education, Scienti fic and Cultural Organization, 1967), 13. 3 Peter Walshe, Ã¢â¬Å"Review: Aspects of Apartheid,Ã¢â¬ The Review of Politics 25, No. 1, (1963): 140. 4 Edgar Brookes, Apartheid: a Documentary Study of Modern South Africa, (London: Routledge 1968), 57. 5 UNESCO, 22. 6 Donald Treiman, Ã¢â¬Å"Migration, Remittances and Educational Stratification among Blacks in Apartheid and Post-Apartheid South AfricaÃ¢â¬ , Social Forces 89, no. 14 (2011): 1124. 7 UNESCO, 31. 8 Ali Abdi, Ã¢â¬Å"Apartheid and Education in South Africa: Select Historical Analyses,Ã¢â¬ The Western Journal of Black Studies 27, no.2 (2003): 90. 9 Abdi, 91. 10 Abdi, 93. 11 UNESCO, 25. 12 Ibid, 22. 13 Donald, 1125. 14 Anthony Lemon, Ã¢â¬Å"Redressing School Inequalities in the Eastern Cape, South AfricaÃ¢â¬ . Journal of Southern African Studies 30, no.2 (2004): 270. 15 UNESCO, 29. 16 Anthony, 270. This research paper on Impact of Apartheid on Education in South Africa was written and submitted by user Cristian Bowman to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, March 11, 2020
Implementing a Successful Tutoring Business Plan So youve decided to start a tutoring business and youve already envisioned what you business will look like, who your potential clients will be, how much to charge, and where and when to schedule your tutoring sessions. Now Im ready to discuss how to handle the time in between your initial conversation with the client and the first tutoring session with your new student. Again, think Big Picture and think RESULTS. - What are your short- and long-term goals for this particular student? Why is his/her parent hiring you at this time? What results will the parent expect to see from their child? When parents send their children to public schools, they sometimes have lowered expectations because the education is free and the teachers have so many other students to work with. With tutoring, parents are shelling out hard-earned cash on a minute-by-minute basis and they want to see results. If they feel that you arent working productively with their child, you wont last long as their tutor and your reputation will suffer. Always keep that goal in mind before every session. Aim to make specific progress during each and every hour of tutoring. Facilitate an Initial Meeting. - If at all possible, Id recommend using your first session as a getting-to-know-you and goal-setting meeting with yourself, the student, and at least one of the parents.Take copious notes during this conversation. Here are some of the things you should discuss at this initial meeting:Clarify the parents expectations. Tell them a little about your lesson ideas and long-term strategies. Outline your invoicing and payment plans. Solicit tips for how best to work with the students strengths and weaknesses. Inquire about what strategies have worked in the past and also which ones havent worked. Ask if its OK to contact the students teacher for additional insight and progress reports. If it is, secure the contact information and follow-through at a later time. Ask for any materials that might be helpful for your sessions. Ensure that the session location will be quiet and conducive to studying. Let the parents know what you will require of them in order to maximize the effectiveness of your work. Clarify whether you should assign homework in addition to the homework the student will already have from regular school. Set Up the Ground Rules. - Just like in the regular classroom, students want to know where they stand with you and whats expected of them. Similar to the first day of school, discuss your rules and expectations, while letting the student know a little bit about you. Tell them how to handle their needs during the sessions, such as if they need a drink of water or to use the restroom. This is particularly important if you are tutoring in your own home, rather than the students, because the student is your guest and will likely be uncomfortable at first. Encourage the student to ask as many questions as he or she needs to. This is one of the main benefits of one-on-one tutoring, of course. Stay Focused and On Task Every Minute. - Time is money with tutoring. As you get rolling with the student, set the tone for productive meetings where every minute counts. Keep the conversation focused on the work at hand and hold the student tightly accountable for the quality of his/her work. Consider Implementing a Form of Parent-Tutor Communication. - The parents want to know what youre doing with the student each session and how it relates to the goals you set. Consider communicating with the parents on a weekly basis, perhaps through email. Alternatively, you can type up a little half-sheet form where you can write some informative notes and have the student bring it home to his/her parents after each session. The more you communicate, the more your clients will see you as on-the-ball and worth their financial investment. Set Up a Tracking and Invoicing System. - Carefully track each hour for each client. I keep a paper calendar where I daily write down my tutoring hours. I de cided to invoice on the 10th of each month. I acquired an invoice template through Microsoft Word and I send out my invoices over email. I request payment by check within 7 days of the invoice. Stay Organized and Youll Stay Productive. - Make a folder for each student where you will keep their contact information, as well as any notes about what youve already done with them, what you observe during your session, and what you plan to do in future sessions. That way, when your next session with that student approaches, youll have a shorthand for knowing where you left off and what comes next. Consider your cancellation policy. - Children are so busy today and so many families are mixed and extended and not living all under the same roof. This makes for complicated situations. Emphasize to the parents how important it is to attend each session on time and without too many cancellations or changes. I instituted a 24-hour cancellation policy where I reserve the right to charge the full hourly rate if a session is canceled on short notice. For reliable clients who rarely cancel, I might not exercise this right. For troublesome clients who always seem to have an excuse, I have th is policy in my back pocket. Use your best judgment, allow some leeway, and protect yourself and your schedule. Put Your Clients Contact Information in Your Cell Phone. - You never know when something will come up and you will need to contact a client. When youre working for yourself, you need to maintain control over your situation, your schedule, and any extenuating factors. Its your name and reputation that are on the line. Treat your tutoring business with seriousness and diligence and youll go far. If you decide that tutoring is for you, I wish you lots of luck and I hope all of these tips have been helpful to you!
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Event Management - Essay Example It becomes significant for the event manager to consider the influences of an event all through implementing an effective planning process. Event impacts also capture the minds of the organisational members along with the policy makers for evaluating public expenditure on events and to assess any negative externalities (Damster & Tassiopoulos, 2006). The study related to event impacts have been arrived by the requirement to test the positive as well as negative influences of holding an event for the purpose of justifying public spending on events. The positive as well as negative influences can be observed at the time of conducting an event. The impact of event might be felt by numerous stakeholders along with the participants, local businesses as well as host community. There are different ways in which the event is likely to impact. The various areas upon which event are likely to impact include physical infrastructure, environmental, economic as well as tourism impacts, image enhancements and urban renewal. The inspirational power of any sporting event which further tends to be stimulated by media reach recommends the fact that they can be a useful tool in developing the interests of the people towards involvement in sports. It can be affirmed that the perception of an organiser relating to the socio-economic impacts of the f estivals along with other special events tends to possess four main domains such as economic benefits, community cohesiveness, social incentives as well as social costs (Gursoy & et. al., 2004). It can be revealed that the positive inflows of revenues into the country cannot be considered as the only factor towards recognising the success of an event. The negative social influence related to an event can lead to greater damages to the future of an event and the ecological influence might also lead towards premature death of any poorly administered event (Daniels & et. al., 2004). It can be identified that an